Chemistry

Food additives

Food additives are natural or synthetic substances which are added to food products in order to maintain/strengthen/weaken/add (to) certain food product attributes, such as taste, smell or appearance.




Dextrin

Dextrin is a carbohydrate of low molecular weight, produced form starch or glycogen. Characteristics of a dextrin include a white, yellow or brown powder, which is partially or completely soluble in water. Yellow dextrin is used as water-soluble glue, foam, and in the casting and mining industries. White dextrin is used as a crisp enhancer and coating (E1400) in the food industry. It is also used in the textile industry as a finishing, coating and as an agent to increase the weight and stiffness of textiles. Moreover, it is used as a binder in the pharmaceutical and paper industries.



Methionine

Methionine (or Met) is an alpha amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. Methionine is used as an organic additive in poultry feed. DL-methionine is sometimes presented as a supplement for dogs to reduce urinary pH acidity.




Adsorbents

Adsorbents are superfine natural or man-made materials with a high specific surface area over which the adsorption of substances occurs, by coming into contact with gases or liquids. Adsorbents are used in gas masks, as catalyst carriers, in gas treatment, in alcohols, oils, the separation of alcohols, oil refinery and medicine to absorb gases and toxins.


Lysine

Lysine (or Lys) is an alpha amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)(CH2)4NH2. Lysine is used in animal feed production and is an important additive because it optimizes growth in animals such as pigs and chickens. Lysine is a microbial fermentation, industrially produced on a sugar base.




Additives

An additive is a mixture added to fuel, lubricants and other substances in small amounts, to improve their performance characteristics.
 
Types of additives include:
  • Depressants;
  • Anti-rust additives;
  • Revitalizants;
  • Anit-smoke additives;
  • Detergents;
  • Antioxidants;
  • Dispersing additives;
  • Corrosion inhibitors;
  • Combustion promoters;

Silica gel

Silica gel is porous silica dioxide, synthetically obtained from sodium silicate. Silica gel is hard and heavy; it is stronger than common household gels, such as gelatin or agar. It is a natural mineral, which is purified and processed. Silica gel is the most prevalent gel in everyday life, most commonly used as beads in a small (1,2 x 0,79 cm) paper bag. It is used as a desiccant in this form, controlling moisture and avoiding spoilage/degradation of some goods.





Perchlorethylene

Perchloretyhlene or tetrachloroethylene, with molecular formula Cl2C=CCl2, is a colorless liquid with a sweet odour. It is widely used for the dry cleaning of fabrics, as well as to remove grease from metal parts of cars, or other processing industries.



Reagents

A reagent is a starting material for chemical reactions. Reagents are reacting materials that are formed during the reaction of products. Many chemical reactions are reversible, meaning that said materials can be regarded as either reagents or products at times, depending on the direction in which a reaction takes place. On the other hand, reagents refer to substances that are experimentally added to a mixture/solution with the intention of finding out what it is composed of, et cetera.



Glue

Glue is a natural or synthetic material used to connect surfaces through bonding.



DMDS

Dimethyl disulfide (or DMDS) is an organic chemical compound with molecular formula _, and it is considered the simplest disulfide. It is a flammable liquid of unpleasant odor. DMDS is used as a food additive, and as a sulfide agent in oil processing.



Fuller's Earth

Fuller’s earth, with chemical formula _, forms in soil-type clay in the South-East United States. Fuller’s Earth is known as the principal component of the pigment known as Maya Blue. It is widely used in medicine.



DETA

Diethlyenetriamine is a colorless, hygroscopic liquid with an amine odor and easily absorbs carbon dioxide from the air. It is corrosive, mixed with water/ethanol/acetone/benzene/ether.


Activated carbon

Activated carbon is a micro porous and neutral adsorbent with a very large internal surface area, which can go as large as 1500 square meters per gram. Its developed internal structure makes carbon an excellent adsorption material, used to remove organic compounds from liquids and gases. Suitable for specific applications, activated carbon types are selected by taking into account the disposal unit adsorption characteristics, or by laboratory test results. Activated charcoal is able to absorb both organic and some inorganic compounds, such as heavy metals. Oxidizing substances such as chlorine or ozone may also be removed. Pollution is adsorbed on both the carbon surface or inside of it. Activated charcoal, as a neutral material, does not cause any side-effects in technological processes. It is usually derived from charcoal.